Urban planning, the very blueprint for urban construction intended to solve urban problems, is aimed at well schemed development toward economy, transportation, sanitation, security, national defense, culture & education, recreation and such infrastructures, with sound planning on the urban land use. To put it in more understandable terms, urban planning is to attain the ultimate goal of enhancing the living environments of citizens on the very rationale on how to establish a set of effective principles and methods for maximum possible economic worth, reasonable utilization, improved land utilization and infrastructures. Through such efforts, a city will be built into a pleasant site for residence, work and leisure time. In general, a city shall through land use, transportation, infrastructures and such substantial scheming attain the goal of bringing the citizens into upgraded living environments.
This article focuses on the statistical analyses focusing on the contents of 446 urban planning zones in Taiwan-Fuchien Area as of December 30, 2000. It is mainly intended to look into how the counties, cities had carried out urban planning, probe into infrastructures of the cities and the overall status of the per capita utilization of infrastructures. Through such efforts, urban planning will be in sounder practice.
Ⅱ. Statistical analysis
1. A total of 446 urban planning districts, 462,348 hectares, covering 17,369,407 inhabitants.
Urban planning is classified into three categories: 1. City (Urban township) Plan; 2. Rural-Settlement Plan; and 3. Special District Plan. Throughout Taiwan-Fuchien Area as of December 30, 2000, there were a total of 446 urban planning districts, 462,348 hectares—12.8% of the entire Taiwan-Fuchien Area, covering 17,369,407 inhabitants—78.0% of the total population.
Throughout Taiwan-Fuchien Area, there were a total of 145 City (Urban township) plan districts—32.5% of the total; and 196 Rural-Settlement plan districts, 44.0% of the total; 105 Special District plan districts, 23.5% of the total. The Rural-Settlement plan districts rank most at 44.0% of the total. By area statistics, City (Urban township) plan districts cover 170,214 hectare at 36.8% of the total; The Rural-Settlement plan districts cover 68,101 hectares at 14.7%% of the total and Special District plan districts cover 224,044 hectares, 48.5% of the total. Special District plan districts cover the largest areas, nearly 49%.
2. The urban planning districts show 3,757 inhabitants per square kilometer in density, 70.6% in population saturation.
Population is the very element of a city and has been rapidly concentrated to urban areas as the most conspicuous characteristics. The rising population boosts local development. A decline in population will lead a city in downhill development. Similarly, a prosperous zone lures immigrants and vice versa in a backwater.
The urban planning districts of the entire Taiwan-Fuchien showed a population density of 3,757 people per square kilometer as of December 31, 2000, rising 50 from the density a year ago. In Taiwan shows density, with 3,886 people per square kilometer. Present population of urban planning districts accounted for 77.9% of the overall total in Taiwan while area of urban planning districts accounts for merely 12.4% of the total area of Taiwan. To put it in more understandable terms, out of every hundred people in Taiwan, 78 resided within urban planning districts, and in merely 12% of the total land area. Taking the population in present compared with anticipated figure, it is 70.6% saturated. By population, Taipei County is the largest, with 3,326,198 residents, followed by Taipei Municipality at 2,646,474; and then Kaohsiung Municipality at 1,459,309.
Six counties/city, i.e., Taipei County, Ilan County, Hsinchu County, Changhua County, Nantou County and Hsinchu City showed a decline in population density from the preceding year, as areas with population drain. Kaohsiung Municipality shows the highest density at 10,147 per square kilometer, followed by Taipei Municipality at 9,733 and then Hsinchu City at 6,146. Lienchiang County and Kinmen County show the lowest density, with 262 and 361 inhabitants respectively per square kilometer. Except these two, Chiayi County shows the lowest density in Taiwan at 1,373, then Taitung County at 1,501 and Nantou County at 2,176.
Urban population has concentrated to City (Urban township) plan districts and Rural-Settlement plan districts. With Special District plan districts excluded, in Taiwan area, each square kilometer houses as many as 6,665. By population density per square kilometer, those top five are: Taipei County at 15,484; Kaohsiung Municipality at 11,730; Taipei Municipality at 9,733, Hsinchu City 9,378 and Taichung County at 6,607.
3. A total of 187,285 hectares have been used for urban developed area, at 41% of the total urban planning districts, mostly used for public facilities land.
To prevent population inflation out of control to assure orderly development, urban planning districts has been classified into different districts (e.g., residential districts, commercial districts) oriented to respective purposes. Through sound classification, urban development will be guided into optimal objectives and goals to ensure satisfactory residential environments, provide optimal infrastructures, safeguard economic benefits and prevent detrimental zoning use.
By zoning use, urban planning districts is further classified into urban developed area and non-urban developed area. The former includes residential districts, commercial districts, industrial districts, administration districts, educational districts, public facility land and other urban developed districts. As of December 30, 2000, the total urban developed areas in Taiwan-Fuchien came to 187,285 hectares, at 40.5% of the total; while non-urban developed area came to 275,063 hectares at 59.5%. Among urban developed area, land classified for public facilities comes to 82,161 hectares, 43.9% of the total urban developed area; residential districts 63,789 hectares at 34.1% of the total urban developed area; industrial districts 22,559 hectares at 12.0%, with land for public facilities land ranking at the top. Of non-urban developed area, protected districts totals 143,100 hectares, 52.0% of the total non-urban developed area; agricultural districts 99,757 hectare at 36.3%, with the protected districts ranking at the top.
4. Public facility land accounts for 17.8% of the urban planning districts, including 38% for road use at the highest.
Public facilities include (I) Land for education, administration, culture, medical facilities, recreation and public services; (II) Public projects for water, power, telecommunications, gas, sewers, waste water pollution, waste treatment, gas station, flood control, transportation; (III) The public land for (I) (II) and land for pedestrian mall, landscaping. The public facility plan is to offer a long-term project oriented to the characteristics of the society. In this article, we look into land for 24 public facility items ranging from park, green area, square, playgrounds, athletic complex, road, car park, gas station, markets, schools, social education organization, health services, administrative authorities, cemetery, telecommunication office, post office, civil air terminal, waterway, harbor, terminal station, pedestrian mall, environmental protection facilities, railway and others.
As of December 31, 2000, a total of 82,161 hectares of land had been projected for public facilities, 17.8% of the total urban planning districts. The top five: Land for roads 30,809 hectares (37.5%); schools 11,438 hectares at 13.9%, parks 9,788 hectares at 11.9%, administration authorities 6,077 hectares at 7.4% and railways 2,065 hectares at 2.5%. Except areas for roads, schools and parks as the top three areas which account for more than 10%, all other public facilities account for less than 2.5%.
5. In urban planning, areas taken for parks, athletic complexes, green areas, squares and playgrounds constitute merely 2.9%, with only 25 spots living up to the requirements of 10% minimum.
According to Article 45 of Urban Planning Law, except an extraordinary situation, area taken for parks, sports, green areas, squares and playgrounds shall not be less than 10% minimum of the total.
As of December 31, 2000 in Taiwan-Fuchien Area, the total areas classified for parks, sports, green areas, squares and playgrounds came to 13,531 hectares, as insignificant as 2.9% of the total, 32,704 hectares below the specified 7.1% minimum.
More ironically, none of the 25 counties/cities lives up to the requirements set forth in Article 45 of the Urban Planning Law. Penghu County shows the highest ratio at 8.7% of the said five top urban planning sectors out of the total and is followed by Hualien County at 6.4% and then Pingtung County 6.1%. The lowest three are Lienchiang County at 0.1%; Taipei County at 1.16% and Kinmen County at 1.18%. By urban planning zones, there are merely 25 spots, at 5.6% of the total, living up to the minimum requirements of 10%, while all the 421 remainders failing to live up to the requirements. Of those living up to the requirements, six spots are in north Taiwan, 3 in the central Taiwan, 10 in the south and 6 in the east.
The total areas taken by the five planning sectors account for 7.2%. Those counties/cities showing areas exceeding 10% include Nantou County at 13.5%; Penghu County at 12.0%; Hualien County at 11.5%, Pingtung County 11.3% and Taipei Municipality 10.9%. The 446 urban planning districts include 61 exceeding 10%, and 28 located inside special districts plan.
6. A majority of urban planning districts have public facilities ranging from 10% to 20%.
There are a total of 443 urban planning districts in Taiwan. Among them, 46 districts or 10.4% have public facilities (public facilities ratio) less than 10%; 184 districts or 41.5%, ranging between 10% and 19.9%; 117 districts or 26.4% ranging from 20% to 29.9%. A total of 96 districts or 21.7% take a rate exceeding 30%. A great majority of urban planning districts hold public facilities between 10% and 20%. Of the 122 urban planning districts in north Taiwan, up to 40 districts get public facilities between 10% and 19.9%. Among the 124 urban planning districts in central Taiwan, up to 64 districts get public facilities between 10% and 19.9%. Of the 161 urban planning districts in southern Taiwan, up to 71 districts get public facilities between 10% and 19.9%. Of the 36 urban planning districts in east Taiwan, up to 13 districts get public facilities between 20% and 29.9%.
7. Taipei County, Taoyuan County and Taipei Municipality present an extremely unhappy Chernoff Faces, taking the smallest per capita area of public facilities.
Throughout Taiwan-Fuchien Area as of December 31, 2000, the administration areas took a total of 6,077 hectares, 7.4% of the total public facility lands. Cultural facilities and schools took 11,546 hectares at 14.1% of the total public facility lands; service facilities 3,701 hectares, 4.5% of the total public facility lands; recreational facilities 13,531 hectares at 16.5%; transportation facilities 37,217 hectares at 45.3%. That is to mean transportation facilities take the greatest share at around 45%; as are followed by recreational facilities at 17%. There are a total of 10,099 hectares not yet classified.
In terms of per capita area for public facilities, each inhabitant enjoys 422 M2 and 248.1 M2 respectively in Lienchiang County and Kinmen County on average ranking at the top or as the runner-up throughout Taiwan-Fuchien Area. These two districts, by their unique characteristics, are not consolidated into the analysis. Below, we’d like to take an analytical look at the counties and cities in Taiwan:
(I) On average, each individual holds 32.6 M2 of public facility land. The top five are: Pingtung County at 52.5 M2; Hualien County at 50.9 M2; Chiayi County at 48.3 M2; Nantou County at 45.8 M2 and Tainan City at 43.6 M2. The last five at the bottom are: Taipei Municipality at 23.4 M2; Taoyuan County at 25.3 M2; Miaoli County at 28.7%; Changhua County at 28.8 M2 and Taichung County at 29.1 M2.
(II) On average, each individual holds 2.1 M2 of administrative area, i.e., government office facilities. The top five are: Chiayi City at 5.3 M2; Taitung County at 4.6 M2; Penghu County at 4.3 M2; Tainan County at 3.8 M2 and Hualien County at 3.7 M2.
(III) On average, each individual holds 4.7 M2 area for cultural facilities and school areas. The top five are: Chiayi County at 8.2 M2; Chiayi City at 7.8 M2; Taitung County at 7.1 M2; Hsinchu City at 7.0 M2 and Nantou County at 6.8 M2.
(IV)On average, each individual holds 1.5 M2 areas for service facilities. The top five are: Keelung City at 5.7 M2; Tainan City at 2.5 M2; Nantou County at 2.3 M2; Hsinchu City at 2.1 M2 and Hualien County at 1.8 M2.
(V) On average, each individual holds 5.4 M2 areas for recreational facilities. The top five are: Pingtung County at 15.2 M2; Nantou County at 14 M2; Hualien County at 12.2 M2; Penghu County at 10.5 M2 and Chiayi County at 9.1 M2.
(VI)On average, each individual holds 14.8 M2 area for transportation facilities. The top five are: Taitung County at 27.3 M2; Tainan City at 25 M2; Tainan County at 24.9 M2; Hualien County at 21.2 M2 and Chiayi County at 20.9 M2.
1. On the island of Taiwan, 78 out of every hundred inhabitants reside within urban planning districts and within the land merely 12% of the total. Inside the urban planning districts, there shows a population density of 3,886 in every square kilometer. When the special districts plan for extraordinary purposes are excluded in calculation, there are even as many as 6,665 people crowding within each square kilometer.
2. The total areas taken by parks, athletic complexes, green areas, squares and playgrounds in 446 spots account for merely 2.9% of the total urban planning districts. Only 25 spots of them, or 5.6% of the total, live up to the requirements of 10% minimum as set forth in Article 45 of the Urban Planning Law while all the 421 remainder spots fail to live up to the minimum requirements.
3. Throughout Taiwan-Fuchien Area, the ratio taken by public facilities comes to 17.8%, with 184 urban planning districts having public facilities ranging from 10% and 20%. Still, there are 96 districts holding up to 30% or more.
4. In terms of Chernoff Faces of all counties, cities on grounds of urban planning, eight counties/cities look happy; Taipei County, Taoyuan County and Taipei Municipality look extremely unhappy, with the smallest per capita public facility land.