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Ministry of the Interior.

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Laws and Regulations
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2019-05-01
Cadastral Clearance Act
                   Chapter I General Provisions 

Article 1

 The Act is enacted to perfect cadastral management, ensure land

 rights, and promote land use.


Article 2

 The authority concerned as referred to in the Act shall be the

 Ministry of Interior of the Central Government; the Municipal

 Governments, and the County (City) Government.

 The registration authority as referred to in the Act shall be

 Land Administration Office of municipality or county

 (city);Where there is no Land Administration Office, it refers

 to the municipal or county (city) authority for land registration

 authority.


Article 3

 In order to investigate cadastral registration in which the

 contents of rights are incomplete or inconsistent with the

 existing laws and regulations, after clarifying  the content of

 rights and ownership, the authority concerned shall register

 again. Those in which the content of rights and ownership cannot

 be clarified shall be auctioned or dealt with. Except as

 otherwise provided in the Act, the investigative procedures are

 as follows:

 1.to investigate cadastre.

 2.to notice the following:

 (1)the land to be cleared up.

 (2)the authorities to accept the report or application for

 registration.        .

 (3)the period for declaration or application for registration.

 3.to accept declaration.

 4.to accept the application for registration.

 5.to review and notice the findings.

 6.to register and issue a certificate of rights.

 7.to deal with change or others.

 The notice of the preceding paragraph 2, shall be done by the

 municipal or county (city)authority concerned, and the period is

 ninety days. Except as otherwise provided in the Act, the period

 of declaration or the application for registration is one year.


Article 4

 The municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall

 investigate within its jurisdiction the land cadastre of articles

 17 to article 33 within a certain period. The regulations

 concerning investigative period, scope, classifications,

 procedures and other related matters shall be prescribed by the

 central authority concerned.


Article 5

 For one of those situations following below, before noticing the

 land to be cleared up according to subparagraph 2 of paragraph 1

 of article 3, the municipal or county (city) authority concerned

 shall consult organs concerning taxes, household administration,

 civil affairs, land administration, courts and others; where it

 can pinpoint the land proprietors or interested party, it shall

 inform them in addition to the notice:

 1.registered in the name of a club or a combination during the

 Japanese colonial period.

 2.registered in the name of the deity worship associations.

 3.the name or address registered is incomplete or mismatched in

 the general land registration or prior to the termination of

 battleground administration of Kinmen and Matsu area.


Article 6

 After the registration authority accepts application for

 registration, it shall begin to review immediately. For those

 shall be corrected by the review, it shall inform the applicant

 to make corrections within six months.


Article 7

 For one of those situations following below, the registration

 authority shall dismiss in writing:

1.those shall not be registered according to law.

 2.a dispute of private rights arises between the proprietors and

 obligor of the registration or between either or both of them and

 related parties.

 3.those cannot be corrected, or failing to make corrections.

 For those dismissed according to the subparagraph 1 and

 subparagraph 3 of the preceding paragraph, the applicant if

 dissatisfied may file an appeal according to law; for those

 dismissed according to the subparagraph 2 of the preceding

 paragraph, the applicant shall file a suit to the Court with

 jurisdiction within three months from the next day upon receipt

 of the dismissal notice.


Article 8

 Upon review as correct after acceptance of registration, except

 for those land stipulated in articles 19 to 26 and article 34 to

 39 shall be registered immediately, the registration authority

 shall notice for three months for the remaining land.


Article 9

 The related party of the land rights can file, in writing and

 with proving documents, an objection to the registration

 authority within the period of notice of the preceding article;

 upon review as land rights dispute, the registration authority

 concerned shall transfer to the municipal or county (city)

 authorities concerned for mediation.

 Dealing with the mediation of the preceding paragraph, the

 Municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall apply

 mutatis mutandis the Land Law Article 34-2. Those who refused to

 accept the decision of mediation may file a suit to the Court

 with jurisdiction within thirty days from the next day upon

 receipt of the notice of mediation decision; for those cases with

 no suit filed before the deadline, it shall be dealt with

 according to the original mediation decision.


Article 10

 Where no objection for the application is filed before the

 deadline of notice, or the mediation is established, or a

 decision of court becomes certain, the application shall be

 registered according to its results.


Article 11

 The land stipulated in articles 17 to article 26, article 32 and

 33, for one of those situations following below, except for

 public facilities, the municipal or county (city) authority

 concerned shall sell on behalf of the owner by public auction

 sale:

 1.no one declares or applies for registration before the

 deadline.

 2.a declaration or application for registration is dismissed,

 and no appeal or suit is filed for the court decision before the

 deadline.

 3.the decision of the appeal committee or the court dismisses

 the case.

 For those of the preceding paragraph, the concerning proprietors

 with good cause, may apply for suspension for the public auction

 sale.

 The rules of the procedure, the suspension requirements and

 deadlines, the base price set and other matters of the public

 auction sale of the preceding two paragraphs shall be prescribed

 by the central authority concerned.


Article 12

 For those land auctioned according to the preceding article, the

 first right holders to buy and their priorities are as follows:

 1.the superficiary, dian-holder, emphyteusis.

 2.the lessee of the base or farmland.

 3.other co-owner of a property of joint tenancy.

 4.the land occupier, who have occupied the land more than ten

 years before the article is enforced and still continue to occupy

 until the auction.

 The order of the first right to buy of the subparagraph 1 of the

 preceding paragraph, shall be determined by the order of

 registration.


Article 13

 The municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall notice

 for three months before auction of the land.

 The preceding notice shall record the context of the first right

 to buy of the preceding article, and the notice substitutes the

 notification of the first right holders to buy. The first right

 holders to buy who do not declare to buy in writing within ten

 days after the auction is bid, will be deemed to have waived his

 first right to buy.


Article 14

 The municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall

 establish a special  cadastral clearing deposit account for sale

 proceeds of land in the national treasury, to keep the proceeds

 of the auction or sale of the land.

 The municipal or county (city) concerned shall deposit the

 proceeds of auction or sale, deducting five percent the cost of

 administration, 5/1000 cadastral clearing reward and payable

 taxes, in the deposit account of the preceding paragraph.

 The rights holders may apply with proving documents to the municipal

  or county (city) authorities concerned for distribution of the

 proceeds within ten years from the depositing date of the proceeds

 in the deposit account; where upon reviewed as correct, before

 deadline of three months of notice, no objection is filed, the

 authority shall distribute the rights holders money of the amount

 equivalent to the proceeds deducting payable taxes in the preceding

 paragraph plus real interest to the deposit.

 Unless the land rights of Articles nineteen and twenty-six, if the

 rights holders in the preceding paragraph are dead, part of the

 heirs may apply for distribution of the proceeds based upon their

 relative share of the total estate within the time limit for

 application.

 After the end of the period in the third paragraph, if there is

 surplus fund in the special deposit account after balance, it

 belongs to the national treasury.

 The rules of the deposit, safe keeping, and belongings to the

 national treasury of cadastral clearing deposit account for

 sale proceeds of land and the distribution and release of the

 reward shall be prescribed by the central authority concerned.


Article 15

 Where the land for public auction sale according to the

 provisions of Article eleven, is not sold after auctioning

 twice, the municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall

 request the registry to register as state-owned.

 The rights holders may apply with proving documents to the

 municipal or county (city) authorities concerned for distribution

 of the proceeds within ten years from the date when the registration

  of the registered as state-owned land in the preceding paragraph

 is completed; where upon review as correct, before deadline of three

 months of notice, no objection is filed, the authority shall

 distribute the rights holders money of the amount equivalent to

 the base price of the second auction of the land deducting payable

 taxes plus real interest from the date of registering as state-owned

 land to the deposit. The money needed shall be paid by cadastral

 clearing deposit account for sale proceeds of land; if insufficient,

 it shall be paid by the national treasury

 Unless the land rights of Articles nineteen and twenty-six, if the

 rights holders in the preceding paragraph are dead, part of the

 heirs may apply for distribution of the proceeds based upon their

 relative share of the total estate within the time limit for

 application.


Article 16

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the dealing with the objection within notice period of the

 paragraph 3 of article 14 and the paragraph 2 of the preceding

 article.



               Chapter II  the clearing up of the land registered

 in the name of club or combination in the Japanese colonial

 period



 Article 17

 The original right holders or its successors of the land

 registered in the name of club or combination in the Japanese

 colonial period, shall apply with proving documents related to

 the equity or the proportion of investment within the period of

 application for registration, to the registration authority for

 correction registration for the rights of  original right

 holders.

 The so-called original owner of the preceding paragraph means

 shareholders or members of combination, or all legitimate heirs

 on October 24, thirty-four years of the Republic of China.

 However, if the shareholders or members are Japanese, the ROC is

 the original owner.


Article 18

 The land provided in the preceding article, shall be dealt with

 according to the following manner:

 1.where the original right holders and its stock rights or

 investment ratio have been determined, registered as co-ownership

 with separate share according to the owner's equity or investment

 ratio.

 2.where the original right holders' stock rights or investment

 ratio are in whole or in part unknown, the original right holders

 or their successors shall agree on their shares for unknown

 portion of the land rights; where the agreement cannot be

 reached, the shares shall be registered as being equal.

 3.where the original right holders' stock rights or investment

 ratio are in whole or in part unknown, the land rights of the

 unknown part shall be dealt with according to paragraph 1 of

 Article 11.

 Where there is the case of the proviso of paragraph 2 of the

 preceding article among the original right holders, the land

 shall be registered as state-owned according to the proportion of

 the stock rights or investment of the Japanese.



               Chapter III the clearing up of the land registered

 in the name of deity worship associations


Article 19

 The land of deity worship associations, shall be declared by

 deity worship associations managers or representatives elected by

 more than 1/3 of the members or believers, within declaration

 period, with the following documents, to the municipal or county

 (city) authority concerned of the location of the land:

 1.the declaration.

 2.the history of the deity worship association and the original

 covenant. Where there is no original covenant, it can be

 substituted by the certificate of the members of the organization

 or capital contribution when the deity worship association was

 set up.

 3.the roll of current members or believers, the systematic chart

 of members or believers and all of the household registration

 transcript of members or believers.

 4.the registration transcript and detailed list of the land.

 5.other concerning documents.

 Where there are two or more declaration referred to in the

 preceding paragraph, the municipal, county (city)authority

 concerned shall inform the parties to coordinate one man to

 declare within three months. If there is no coordination, the

 municipal, county (city) authorities concerned shall inform the

 parties to file an action of confirmation to the court within a

 month and report directly to the municipal, county (city)

 authorities concerned. The municipal, county (city) authority

 concerned shall deal with according to court's decision. All will

 be dismissed if no suit is filed before the deadline.

 Where the land of deity worship association is located in

 different municipalities or counties (cities), he shall declare

 to the authorities concerned of municipality or County (City) in

 which the land area of the land of the deity worship association

 is the biggest. The authority concerned which accepts the

 declaration, shall inform other authority concerned of

 municipality or County (City) in which the land of the deity

 worship association is located to review jointly.


Article 20

 The municipal or county (city) authority concerned, after

 reviewing as correct the declaration of deity worship

 associations according to the provisions of the preceding

 paragraph, shall notice and display the roll and systematic chart

 of members or believers and detailed list of the land in the

 office of township (town, city, district) or village in which the

 land is located for a period of three months. It shall also leave

 the copy of notice and the roll and systematic chart of current

 members or believers and detailed list of the real estate, to the

 declarer to publish on a local prevailing newspaper or electronic

 newspaper for three consecutive days from the date on which the

 notice is posted, andpost the notice for thirty days in the website

 of the municipalor county (city) authority concerned and the township

(town,city, district).

 The related party of the land rights can file, in writing and

 with proving documents, an objection to the municipal or county

 (city) authority concerned within the period of notice of the

 preceding paragraph.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the objection concerning a dispute of private rights of the

 preceding paragraph.


Article 21

 The municipal or county (city) authority concerned shall inform

 the declarer to correct the declaration of deity worship

 associations according to the provisions of the paragraph 1 of

 article 19 if attached documents are incomplete within six

 months; cannot be corrected or no correction being made before

 the deadline, dismiss the application.


Article 22

 When no objection is filed before the deadline, or mediation is

 established, or a decision of court becomes certain, for the

 declaration of deity worship associations according to the

 provisions of the paragraph 1 of article 19, the municipal or

 county (city) authority concerned shall immediately return to the

 declarer the roll and systematic chart of current members or

 believers and detailed list of the land of the deity worship

 associations after stamping verification seal and inform

 registration authority.


Article 23

 Where there are changes, omissions, or mistakes after the roll

 and systematic chart of current members or believers and detailed

 list of the land of the deity worship associations being stamped

 verification seal by the municipal or county (city) authority

 concerned, the managers, members, believers, or interested party

 of the deity worship associations with more than half of the

 members or believers’ written consent may apply, stating reasons

 and attaching concerning documents, for correction.

 After reviewing as correct, the municipal or county (city)

 authority concerned which accepts the application in preceding

 paragraph, shall notice for thirty days and inform the

 registration authority. If there is no objection, the authority

 concerned shall correct the roll of current members or believers

 or detailed list of the land, and inform the registration

 authority after correction.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the objection concerning a dispute of private rights of the

 preceding paragraph.


Article 24

 After receipt of the roll and systematic chart of current members

 or believers and detailed list of the land of the deity worship

 associations being stamped verification seal by the municipal or

 county (city) authority concerned, the declarer shall deal with

 according to one of the following ways within three years:

 1.to apply the land of the deity worship associations change of

 name registration as the juridical person being owner, when more

 than half of the members or believers agree in writing to

 establish a juridical person according to law.

 2.to apply the land of the deity worship associations

 registered as the property of joint tenancy or individual

 ownership of current members or believers, according to covenant

 or more than half of the members or believers’ written consent.

 When the declarer does not deal with according to the preceding

 paragraph, the municipal or county (city) authority concerned

 shall request land registration authority concerned to register

 as the property of joint tenancy of equal separate share of the

 current members or believers, according to the roll of current

 members or believers.


Article 25

 The land of deity worship associations, being cleared up

 according to concerning law prior to the enforcement of the Act,

 which is still registered in the name of a deity worship

 association after the enforcement of the Act, shall deal with

 according to the provisions of paragraph 1 of the preceding

 article within three years from the date of enforcement of the

 Act; if no dealing with before the deadline, the municipal or

 county (city) authority concerned shall deal with according to

 the provisions of paragraph 2 of the preceding article.


Article 26

 The land, registered not in the name of a deity worship

 association, of the nature and fact of deity worship associations

 prior to the enforcement of the Act, when the declarer provides

 written consent or other certifiable proving documents that more

 than half of current known members or believers agree to deal

 with as the case of deity worship associations, apply mutatis

 mutandis the provisions of this chapter.



               Chapter IV the clearing up of land rights other

 than ownership

 

 Article 27

 The land right, registered before December 31, thirty-eight years

 of the Republic of China and with one of the following

 situations, shall be noticed for a period of three months by the

 registration authority, and if there is no objection filed before

 the deadline, shall be directly registered of cancellation:

 1.a pledge of immovable property registered as dian or temporary

 dian.

 2.a cultivating right

 3.a lending right

 4.other registration not in the name of statutory property

 rights.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the dealing of the objection within the period of notice of the

 preceding paragraph.


Article 28

 A mortgage registered before December 31, thirty-eight years of

 the Republic of China, which the landowner may apply for

 registration of cancellation, shall be noticed for a period of

 three months by the registration authority, and if there is no

 objection filed before the deadline, shall be registered of

 cancellation.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the dealing of the objection within the period of notice of the

 preceding paragraph.

 The landowners shall be liable for damages of the mortgagee who

 has sustained loss caused by registration of cancellation of the

 preceding paragraph 1.


Article 29

 A superficies registered before December 31, thirty-eight years

 of the Republic of China, without a definite duration, and the

 right holder’s domicile being unknown or the right holder being

 missing, and no building improvements or other work on the land,

 which the landowner may apply for registration of cancellation,

 shall be noticed for a period of three months by the registration

 authority, and if there is no objection filed before the

 deadline, shall be registered of cancellation.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the dealing of the objection within the period of notice of the

 preceding paragraph.

 The landowners shall be liable for damages of the superficiary

 who has sustained loss caused by registration of cancellation of

 the preceding paragraph 1.


              Chapter V the clearing up of land rights registered

 of restriction and unknown rights


Article 30

 The landowner may apply for registration of cancellation of an

 attachment, provisional appropriation, provisional disposition

 registered before December 31, thirty-eight years of the Republic

 of China; the registration authority shall notice for a period of

 three months, and if there is no objection filed before the

 deadline, shall register of cancellation.

 The provisions of article 9 shall be mutatis mutandis applied to

 the dealing of the objection within the period of notice of the

 preceding paragraph.

 The landowners shall be liable for damages of the creditor who

 has sustained loss caused by registration of cancellation of the

 preceding paragraph 1.


Article 31

 The land of joint tenancy, and the co-owners’ total right of

 ownership being not equal to 1, unless the registration authority

 may directly register of correction according the proving

 documents about original registration reason or other qualified

 proving materials, shall be applied by one of the co-owner, with

 the consent of more than half of the co-owners whose scope of

 ownership being incorrect and whose ownership shares being more

 than half of the total shares, for correction within the period

 of application of registration.

 When no application of registration of correction is filed

 according to the preceding paragraph, the authority concerned

 shall directly register of correction according to the new scope

 of right calculated by concerning co-owners’ percentage of

 registered shares.

 The registration of corrections according to the provisions of

 the preceding two paragraphs, can be dealt with without the

 consent of the proprietor of other estate, and not be refrained

 by registration of restriction.


Article 31-1

 Whereas the scope of land ownership's right of the registering

 party was registered as blank at the general land registration

 and now it has been registered as blank, the rights holders

 should apply for registration of rectification within the period

 of application registration, unless the registration authority

 directly makes registration of rectification based on the proving

 documents regarding original registration reason or other qualified

 proving materials.

 Where there is more than one rights holder in the preceding paragraph,

  it should be consented by over half of the rights holders, and

 applied for registration of rectification by one of the rights holders.

 Where the application is not following the provisions of the

 preceding two paragraphs, the registration agency shall directly

 make registration of rectification, and recalculate the new scope

 of the rights after announcing publicly for three months unless

 there is objection filed during the public announcement period.

 1. If the registering party is only one, “the scope of rights

 being registered as blank” is whole.

 2. If the registering party is more than one, “the scope of rights

 being registered as blank” shall be divided equally by number

 of the registering party.

“The scope of rights being registered as blank” in the preceding

 paragraph is defined as the remaining rights which whole scope of

 rights deducts part of registered scope of rights.

 The provisions of Article nine shall be mutatis mutandis applied

 to the dealing of the objection within the period of notice of

 the third paragraph.

 The registration of rectification based on the provisions of the

 first to third paragraphs, can be dealt with without the consent

 of the holders of other rights, and not be refrained by registration

 of restriction.


Article 32

 The land right already registered, except for articles 17 to 26

 and article 33, which  the name or address registered is

 incomplete or mismatched in the general land registration or

 prior to the termination of battleground administration of Kinmen

 and Matsu area, shall be applied by the proprietor or interested

 party, with proving documents, for registration of correction

 within the period of application of registration.


Article 33

 The land right registered not in the name of natural persons or

 juridical person or fund-raising temple registered according to

 law, except for articles 17 to 26 and article 35 and the

 registered holder of title being ancestral worship associations

 or of the nature and fact of ancestral worship associations,

 shall be applied by the interested party, with proving documents,

 for registration of correction within the period of application

 of registration.



               Chapter VI the clearing up of land of the temple or

 religious organization


Article 34

 The land registered originally in the name of the temple or

 religious organization, the name registered of change of other

 person before October 24, thirty-four years of the Republic of

 China, which is managed, used or profited by the temple or

 religious organization in the beginning, shall be declared, with

 consent of the registered holder of title or his successors, by

 the temple or religious organization with proving documents, to

 the municipal or county (city) authority concerned for issue of

 certificate within the period of declaration. Within thirty days

 from the date when getting the certificate, it shall apply for

 registration of change of name.

 The temple or religious organization which declares for issue of

 certificate according to the provisions of the preceding

 paragraph, shall be an fund-raising temple registered according

 to law or a juridical person when declaring.

 If there are more than one registered holders of title of

 paragraph 1, the consent of more than half of the Co-owners and

 whose ownership shares being more than half of the total shares

 is required.

 Where the registered holder of title of paragraph 1 is natural

 person who is missing or whose domicile is incomplete, or is the

 club or combination which do not apply for corrections according

 to Article 17 and is lack of roll of shareholders or members of

 combination, the land may be declared, with proving documents, by

 the temple or religious organization which certifies that when

 the real right holder asserts rights, it will return the land and

 be liable.

 Where the registered holder of title of paragraph 1 is a

 juridical person or an unincorporated association, after exerting

 right of consent, it shall declare to the business authority

 concerned for reference.


Article 35

 Where the land is registered in the name of the spirits or the

 temple or religious organization not registered according to law,

 and is now used by fund-raising temple or religious corporation

 registered according to law, and the registered holder of title

 and the temple or religious corporation now using the land can be

 proved to be identical, the temple or religious corporation

 registered according to law, shall  declare, with proving

 documents, to the municipal or county (city) authority concerned

 where the land is located for issue of certificate within the

 period of declaration. Within thirty days from the date when

 getting the certificate, it shall apply to registration authority

 concerned for registration of change of name.


Article 36

 After accepting the declaration according to the provisions of

 the preceding two paragraphs, the municipal or county (city)

 authority concerned shall deal with  following procedures below:

 1.after reviewing as correct , shall immediately notice for

 three months.

 2.where no objection for the application is filed before the

 deadline of notice, or the mediation is established, or a

 decision of court becomes certain, shall immediately issue the

 certificate and inform the registration authority.

 The provisions of article 6, article 7 and article 9 shall be

 mutatis mutandis applied to the dealing of the review and the

 objection within the period of notice of the preceding paragraph.


Article 37

 Where the land is registered in the name of the spirits or the

 temple or religious organization not registered according to law,

 and is now used by fund-raising temple or religious corporation

 registered according to law, and the registered holder of title

 and the temple or religious corporation now using the land cannot

 be proved to be identical, the temple or religious corporation

 now using the land, may apply to the municipal or county (city)

 authority concerned where the land is located for selling on

 behalf of the owner, by the price of announced current assessed

 land value, to the temple or religious corporation, within the

 period of declaration.


Article 38

 After accepting the buying of land according to the provisions of

 the preceding article, the municipal or county (city) authority

 concerned shall deal with following provisions below:

 1.after reviewing as correct , shall immediately notice for

 three months.

 2.where no objection for the application is filed before the

 deadline of notice, or the mediation is established, or a

 decision of court becomes certain, shall immediately inform the

 temple or religious corporation which buying the land to pay the

 price within a deadline.

 3.after being paid the price, shall issue the certificate of

 transfer of title of the land and inform the registration

 authority.

 The provisions of article 6, article 7 and article 9 shall be

 mutatis mutandis applied to the dealing of the review and the

 objection within the period of notice of the preceding paragraph.


Article 39

 Where the land was transferred to the temple or religious

 organization in the Japanese colonial period, and was not

 registered of transfer or was forfeited by Japanese government

 after transfer, and was registered as public land prior to the

 enforcement of the Act, and the temple or religious organization

 has managed, used or profited the land  since the Japanese

 colonial period, and the temple is fund raising temple registered

 according to law, and the religious organization is juridical

 person registered according to law, the temple or religious

 juridical person may apply for a gift of the land of the scope of

 actually managing, using or profiting to the land administration

 authority within the period of declaration. The rule of

 qualifications, procedures, documents to be attached, review, the

 limitation of using and profiting the gifted land and other

 regulatory matters shall be prescribed by the Executive Yuan.

 The land, to be applied for a gift according to the provisions of

 the preceding paragraph, is only for the land not for public

 facilities.

 The land to be dealt according to the provisions of paragraph 1,

 shall not be regulated by article 25 of Land Act.



               Chapter VII Supplementary Provisions


Article 40

 The expense of dealing with cadastral clearance, except for other

 provisions in the Act, the central authority concerned shall

 budget for paying the expenses required.


Article 41

 The clearing up of the registered building improvements shall

 apply mutatis mutandis the provisions of the Act.


Article 42

 The enforcement rules of the Act shall be prescribed by the

 Central authority concerned.


Article 43

 The amended clauses of this Act shall be in force from the date

 of promulgation.